First Author: Bernhard Meyer
All Authors: Meyer B
Journal Title: International journal of food microbiology
Abstract: Numerous reports are available on microbial resistance to antibiotics as well as to biocides. Instances of cross-resistance between these substance groups have been reported. Resistance, which is a genetically determined phenomenon, has to be distinguished from phenotypic adaptation processes, which are not hereditary. Adaptation can be avoided by rigorous cleaning and disinfection, avoiding concentrations of disinfectants below the microbicidal concentration. Resistance phenomena have to be divided into intrinsic and acquired resistance. Intrinsic resistance is the naturally greater resistance of certain microbial species compared to others. The term acquired resistance is used if certain strains of a microbial species differ significantly in their susceptibility to biocides compared to the average of this species. An overview of existing reports of resistance to different biocidal substances is given. In most of these reports, resistance is defined as an elevated minimum inhibitory concentration. The relevance of these data for disinfection processes, where microbicidal concentrations are applied, is discussed. Rotational use of different types of disinfectants, to avoid development of resistance, has been discussed controversially. Because of the unspecific mechanism of action of biocides, and the lack of scientific evidence for its need, rotational use of disinfectants is not recommended. In conclusion the risk of hazards in food production and processing caused by resistance to biocides is regarded as low.
Authors: Joubrel C, Gendron N, Dmytruk N, Touak G, Verlaguet M, Poyart C, Réglier-Poupet H
Abstract: We compared the performances and the cost-effectiveness of 5 selective media for Group B Streptococcus (GBS) screening in vaginal samples from pregnant women. The usefulness of these media is unquestionable for GBS screening; the choice will depend largely on the laboratory organization.
Authors: Alves MJ, Ferreira IC, Martins A, Pintado M
Abstract: This work aimed to screen the antimicrobial activity of aqueous methanolic extracts of 13 mushroom species, collected in Bragança, against several clinical isolates obtained in Hospital Center of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Portugal.Microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). MIC results showed that Russula delica and Fistulina hepatica extracts inhibited the growth of gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Morganella morganni and Pasteurella multocida) and gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus pyogenes) bacteria. A bactericide effect of both extracts was observed in Past. multocida, Strep. agalactiae and Strep. pyogenes with MBC of 20, 10 and 5 mg ml?¹, respectively. Lepista nuda extract exhibited a bactericide effect upon Past. multocida at 5 mg ml?¹ and inhibited Proteus mirabilis at 20 mg ml?¹. Ramaria botrytis extract showed activity against Enterococcus faecalis and L. monocytogenes, being bactericide for Past. multocida, Strep. agalactiae (MBCs 20 mg ml?¹) and Strep. pyogenes (MBC 10 mg ml?¹). Leucopaxillus giganteus extract inhibited the growth of E. coli and Pr. mirabilis, being bactericide for Past. multocida, Strep. pyogenes and Strep. agalactiae.Fistulina hepatica, R. botrytis and R. delica are the most promising species as antimicrobial agents.Mushroom extracts could be an alternative as antimicrobials against pathogenic micro-organisms resistant to conventional treatments.
Authors: Viscardi M, Capparelli R, Iannelli D
Abstract: Immunoselection and flow cytometry allowed the isolation from Streptococcus thermophilus strain Str31 of double mutants displaying resistance to the phage phi31 and good acid production. Strain Str31 is very sensitive to phage phi31. This phage-host system seemed therefore particularly suitable to test the validity of the selection method adopted in this study. Mutants were stable with respect to both characters. The isolation of the double mutants required 4 to 5 days. The approach does not involve genetic manipulations and can therefore be an alternative to genetic engineering when this technology cannot be applied.
Authors: Sato T, Takayanagi A, Nagao K, Tomatsu N, Fukui T, Kawaguchi M, Kudoh J, Amagai M, Yamamoto N, Shimizu N
Abstract: Fungal diseases in immunocompromised hosts pose significant threats to their prognoses. An accurate diagnosis and identification of the fungal pathogens causing the infection are critical to determine the proper therapeutic interventions, but these are often not achieved, due to difficulties with isolation and morphological identification. In an effort to ultimately carry out the simultaneous detection of all human pathogenic microbes, we developed a simple system to identify 26 clinically important fungi by using a combination of PCR amplification and DNA microarray assay (designated PCR-DM), in which PCR-amplified DNA from the internal transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene was hybridized to a DNA microarray fabricated with species-specific probes sets using the Bubble Jet technology. PCR-DM reliably identified all 26 reference strains; hence, we applied it to cases of onychomycosis, taking advantage of the accessibility of tissue from skin. PCR-DM detected fungal DNA and identified pathogens in 92% of 106 microscopy-confirmed onychomycosis specimens. In contrast, culture was successful for only 36 specimens (34%), 3 of which had results inconsistent with the results of PCR-DM, but sequence analysis of the isolates proved that the PCR-DM result was correct. Thus, PCR-DM provides a powerful method to identify pathogenic fungi with high sensitivity and speed directly from tissue specimens, and this concept could be applied to other fungal or nonfungal infectious human diseases in less accessible anatomical sites.
Authors: Klumpp J, Fuchs TM
Abstract: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) survives and proliferates within macrophage cells. A mutant library of strain ATCC 14028 based on gene disruption by homologous recombination was screened in order to identify genes that are required for wild-type-like intracellular replication. Randomly generated chromosomal fragments from the genome of S. typhimurium were cloned into a temperature-sensitive vector, and approximately 8000 individual mutant clones were obtained by insertional-duplication mutagenesis (IDM) upon selection at non-permissive temperature. Large-scale screening for replication defects in mouse macrophages, but not during growth in rich or minimal medium, revealed a set of attenuated mutants that were further characterized by PCR amplification and sequencing of the mutagenic fragments. Following analysis of a Salmonella genome map with the annotated positions of vector insertions, an accumulation of 33 attenuating insertions within genes of ten non-collinear regions was found. Insertions in virK, gipA and five SPI-2 genes as well as seven non-polar deletions validated the screen. No invasion deficiencies of the mutants were observed. The cob-cbi-pdu cluster containing the genes for cobalamin synthesis and 1,2-propanediol degradation was shown to be required for Salmonella replication within macrophages. These data gave rise to a model of eukaryotic glycoconjugates and phospholipids as alternative carbon, nitrogen and energy sources for intracellularly replicating bacteria. The contribution of as yet unknown components of SPI-6 and the Gifsy-1 and Gifsy-2 prophage islands to intracellular replication is reported, as well as the fivefold reduced intracellular growth rate of a mutant with a deletion of STM1677, which probably encodes a LysR-like transcriptional regulator. The intracellular replication rate of three double mutants, each lacking two gene products of the cob-cbi-pdu cluster or the Gifsy-1 prophage, was shown to be lower than that of the respective single mutants, suggesting that additive effects of subtle intracellular advantages contribute to Salmonella fitness in vivo.
Authors: Samapundo S, Ampofo-Asiama J, Anthierens T, Xhaferi R, Van Bree I, Szczepaniak S, Goemaere O, Steen L, Dhooge M, Paelinck H, Dewettinck K, Devlieghere F
Abstract: The growth inhibiting effects of NaCl and selected simple salt replacers (CaCl(2), MgCl(2), KCl and MgSO(4)) on the growth of Lactobacillus sakei were studied in de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth at 7 degrees C over a water phase concentration of 0 to 6.4%. The divalent chloride salts (CaCl(2) in particular) generally had the largest antimicrobial activities at equivalent water phase concentrations, molalities or water activity (a(w)) values. MgSO(4) had not only the least antimicrobial activity but also the smallest a(w) depressing capacity. The results also showed that the antimicrobial effects of CaCl(2) were not fully accounted for by its a(w) depressing effects. Challenge tests performed on cooked ham and white sauce showed that reduction of NaCl levels by 28 and 33%, respectively, had no influence on the microbial stability of these products to L. sakei. Ultimately the study concluded that the microbiological consequences of the full or partial replacement of NaCl on the growth of L. sakei largely depend on the initial level of NaCl, the level of replacement and the nature of the salt replacer used. Altered stability to L. sakei is most likely given a high initial NaCl level, combined with a large level of partial replacement with either CaCl(2) (increased stability) or MgSO(4) (reduced stability) as the replacer.
Authors: Gordon DM, O'Brien CL
Abstract: A collection of 266 faecal isolates of Escherichia coli from humans was assayed for the production of mitomycin C-inducible bacteriocins and screened using a PCR-based method for the presence of eleven colicins and seven microcins. Eight different colicins were detected and all seven microcins. Of the strains examined, 38 % produced a bacteriocin, 24 % produced a colicin and 20 % produced a microcin. Of the 102 bacteriocin-producing strains, 42 % produced one type of bacteriocin, 41 % produced two, 16 % produced three and one strain was found to produce four different bacteriocins. Strains producing more than one bacteriocin were more likely to be members of E. coli genetic group B2 and less likely to belong to genetic groups A or D. Several of the bacteriocins were found to co-occur in a strain more often than would be expected by chance: microcins H47 and M; colicin Ia and microcin V; colicins B and M; colicins E1 and M; colicins E1 and Ia. No bacteriocins released as a consequence of cell lysis were found to co-associate more often than expected by chance. Three non-mutually exclusive hypotheses are presented that might explain the high frequency of multiple bacteriocin production in E. coli strains: (1) expanded killing range, (2) expanded receptor repertoire and (3) fitness benefits in different environments.
Authors: Valvano MA
Abstract: Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) species are a group of Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens that infect the airways of cystic fibrosis patients, and occasionally they infect other immunocompromised patients. Bcc bacteria display high-level multidrug resistance and chronically persist in the infected host while eliciting robust inflammatory responses. Studies using macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells, combined with advances in the genetic manipulation of these bacteria, have increased our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of virulence in these pathogens and the molecular details of cell-host responses triggering inflammation. This article discusses our current view of the intracellular survival of Burkholderia cenocepacia within macrophages.
Authors: Lau JB, Stork S, Moog D, Schulz J, Maier UG
Abstract: Most secondary plastids of red algal origin are surrounded by four membranes and nucleus-encoded plastid proteins have to traverse these barriers. Translocation across the second outermost plastid membrane, the periplastidal membrane (PPM), is facilitated by a ERAD-(ER-associated degradation) derived machinery termed SELMA (symbiont-specific ERAD-like machinery). In the last years, important subunits of this translocator have been identified, which clearly imply compositional similarities between SELMA and ERAD. Here we investigated, via protein-protein interaction studies, if the composition of SELMA is comparable to the known ERAD complex. As a result, our data suggest that the membrane proteins of SELMA, the derlin proteins, are linked to the soluble sCdc48 complex via the UBX protein sUBX. This is similar to the ERAD machinery whereas the additional SELMA components, sPUB und a second Cdc48 copy might indicate the influence of functional constraints in developing a translocation machinery from ERAD-related factors. In addition, we show for the first time that a rhomboid protease is a central interaction partner of the membrane proteins of the SELMA system in complex plastids.
Authors: Cardinale E, Rose V, Perrier Gros-Claude JD, Tall F, Rivoal K, Mead G, Salvat G
Abstract: The main objectives of this study were to investigate the diversity of Campylobacter genotypes circulating in Senegal and to determine the frequency of antibiotic resistance.Strains of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from poultry (n = 99) and from patients (n = 10) and Campylobacter coli isolated from poultry (n = 72) were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The pulsotypes obtained after digestion by SmaI and KpnI revealed a significant genetic diversity in both species, but without any predominant pulsotypes. However, farm-specific clones were identified in the majority of poultry houses (76.5%). Human and poultry isolates of C. jejuni had common PFGE patterns. High quinolone-resistance rates were observed for C. jejuni (43.4%) and C. coli (48.6%) isolates obtained from poultry.The results showed a genetic diversity of Campylobacter between farms indicating multiple sources of infection; but specific clones had the ability to colonize the broiler farms. The antimicrobial resistance patterns were not related to any specific PFGE pattern suggesting that resistance was due to the selective pressure of antibiotic usage. Campylobacter with similar genotypes were circulating in both human and poultry.This study is important for the understanding of the epidemiology of Campylobacter in broiler farms in Senegal. It also emphasizes the need for a more stringent policy in the use of antimicrobial agents in food animals.