First Author: Yael Graif
All Authors: Graif Y, Romano-Zelekha O, Livne I, Green MS, Shohat T
Journal Title: Pediatric allergy and immunology : official publication of the European Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Abstract: The question of whether atopic diseases are a risk factor for allergic reactions to insect sting is still unresolved. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between atopic diseases (asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic eczema) and allergic reactions to insect stings among schoolchildren in Israel. A self-report questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was administered to a national sample of 13-14-yr-old schoolchildren. Questions regarding reactions to insect stings were added. A total of 10,021 questionnaires were available for analysis. Among the children who reported insect stings (56.3%), the prevalence of current asthma was 6.0%, of allergic rhinitis, 10.5%, and of atopic eczema, 8.7%, with no significant differences from the whole study population. Among children with any of the atopic diseases, 36.9% reported an allergic reaction to insect sting compared to 24.8% of the non-atopic children (p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema were found to be significant risk factors for allergic reactions of any severity. Children in the atopic group had a significantly higher rate of severe allergic reactions than the non-atopic children, and relatively higher rates of milder ones (p < 0.0001). Asthmatic patients with severe allergic reactions had more parameters of severe asthma than asthmatic patients with mild or no reactions. In conclusions, allergic diseases are associated with a higher rate and greater severity of allergic reactions to insect sting in children. The severity of the allergic reaction is related to the severity of the asthma symptoms.
Authors: Kusu T, Kayama H, Kinoshita M, Jeon SG, Ueda Y, Goto Y, Okumura R, Saiga H, Kurakawa T, Ikeda K, Maeda Y, Nishimura J, Arima Y, Atarashi K, Honda K, Murakami M, Kunisawa J, Kiyono H, Okumura M, Yamamoto M, Takeda K
Abstract: Extracellular ATP is released from live cells in controlled conditions, as well as dying cells in inflammatory conditions, and, thereby, regulates T cell responses, including Th17 cell induction. The level of extracellular ATP is closely regulated by ATP hydrolyzing enzymes, such as ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (ENTPDases). ENTPDase1/CD39, which is expressed in immune cells, was shown to regulate immune responses by downregulating the ATP level. In this study, we analyzed the immunomodulatory function of ENTPDase7, which is preferentially expressed in epithelial cells in the small intestine. The targeted deletion of Entpd7 encoding ENTPDase7 in mice resulted in increased ATP levels in the small intestinal lumen. The number of Th17 cells was selectively increased in the small intestinal lamina propria in Entpd7(-/-) mice. Th17 cells were decreased by oral administration of antibiotics or the ATP antagonist in Entpd7(-/-) mice, indicating that commensal microbiota-dependent ATP release mediates the enhanced Th17 cell development in the small intestinal lamina propria of Entpd7(-/-) mice. In accordance with the increased number of small intestinal Th17 cells, Entpd7(-/-) mice were resistant to oral infection with Citrobacter rodentium. Entpd7(-/-) mice suffered from severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, which was associated with increased numbers of CD4(+) T cells producing both IL-17 and IFN-?. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that ENTPDase7 controls the luminal ATP level and, thereby, regulates Th17 cell development in the small intestine.
Authors: Osborne LC, Patton DT, Seo JH, Abraham N
Abstract: Lymphopenia-induced proliferation (LIP) is a proliferative program initiated in response to T cell insufficiency caused by acute or chronic immunodepletion. Studies of lymphopenic mice have demonstrated that the cytokine IL-7 and TCR signaling are critical for LIP. We examined how these two factors impact T cell proliferation following transfer into moderately lymphopenic mice. In this study, we show that moderate lymphopenia (?25% of wild-type lymphocytes) of IL-7R? knock-in mutant (IL-7R?(449F)) mice supports T cell proliferation, although with decreased frequency and kinetics compared with cells transferred to severely lymphopenic (5% of wild-type lymphocytes) IL-7R?(-/-) hosts. Although previous studies have demonstrated that elevated IL-7 levels play an important role in LIP, IL-7 availability was not elevated in IL-7R?(449F) mice. However, moderate lymphopenia increased access of transferred T cells to self-peptide presented on APCs that can trigger TCR signaling and proliferation. Importantly, we did not detect significant changes in TCR V? usage of proliferated T cells recovered from either moderately or severely lymphopenic hosts. Our work demonstrates that polyclonal T cells retain a diverse TCR repertoire following proliferation mediated by either self-peptide-MHC interaction alone or in combination with IL-7, and that T cell reconstitution is most efficient in the presence of increased IL-7 availability.
Authors: Jin ZX, Kishi H, Wei XC, Matsuda T, Saito S, Muraguchi A
Abstract: The recombination-activating gene (RAG)-1 and RAG-2 are expressed specifically in immature lymphoid cells undergoing the recombination of Ag receptor genes. We studied the regulation of murine RAG-2 promoter and revealed that -41/-17 RAG-2 promoter region, which was indispensable for the RAG-2 promoter activity in B cell lines, contained binding sites for lymphoid enhancer-binding factor-1 (LEF-1), c-Myb, and Pax-5. We showed that these three transcription factors bound the promoter region in vitro and in vivo. Cotransfection assays using a human embryonic kidney cell line (293T) showed that LEF-1, c-Myb, and Pax-5 cooperatively activated the RAG-2 promoter, via their synergistic DNA binding. We also showed that LEF-1, c-Myb, and Pax-5 physically interact in the cells. Finally, we demonstrated that a dominant-negative LEF-1 protein, which lacks the binding site for beta-catenin, suppressed the RAG-2 promoter activity as well as the endogenous RAG-2 expression in a pre-B cell line (18.81). These results suggest that LEF-1/beta-catenin complex regulates the RAG-2 promoter activation in concert with c-Myb and Pax-5 in immature B cells. The link between LEF-1/beta-catenin and Wnt signaling in B lineage cells will be discussed.
Authors: Cantor JM, Rose DM, Slepak M, Ginsberg MH
Abstract: Inefficient T-cell homing to tissues limits adoptive T-cell immunotherapy of solid tumors. ?L?2 and ?4?1 integrins mediate trafficking of T cells into tissues via engagement of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, respectively. Inhibiting protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of ?4 integrin in cells results in an increase in ?L?2-mediated migration on mixed ICAM-1-VCAM-1 substrates in vitro, a phenomenon termed "integrin trans-regulation." Here, we created an ?4(S988A)-bearing mouse, which precludes PKA-mediated ?4 phosphorylation, to examine the effect of integrin trans-regulation in vivo. The ?4(S988A) mouse exhibited a dramatic and selective increase in migration of lymphocytes, but not myeloid cells, to sites of inflammation. Importantly, we found that the ?4(S988A) mice exhibited a marked increase in T-cell entry into and reduced growth of B16 melanomas, consistent with antitumor roles of infiltrating T cells and progrowth functions of tumor-associated macrophages. Thus, increased ?4 trans-regulation of ?L?2 integrin function biases leukocyte emigration toward lymphocytes relative to myeloid cells and enhances tumor immunity.
Authors: Ying S, O'Connor B, Ratoff J, Meng Q, Fang C, Cousins D, Zhang G, Gu S, Gao Z, Shamji B, Edwards MJ, Lee TH, Corrigan CJ
Abstract: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with Th2 and Th1 differentiated T cells. The cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) promotes differentiation of Th2 T cells and secretion of chemokines which preferentially attract them. We hypothesized that there is distinct airways expression of TSLP and chemokines which preferentially attract Th1- and Th2-type T cells, and influx of T cells bearing their receptors in asthma and COPD. In situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and ELISA were used to examine the expression and cellular provenance of TSLP, Th2-attracting (TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, I-309/CCL1), and Th1-attracting (IP-10/CXCL10, I-TAC/CXCL11) chemokines in the bronchial mucosa and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of subjects with moderate/severe asthma, COPD, and controls. Cells expressing mRNA encoding TSLP, TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and IP-10/CXCL10, but not I-TAC/CXCL11 and I-309/CCL1, were significantly increased in severe asthma and COPD as compared with non-smoker controls (p < 0.02). This pattern was reflected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein concentrations. Expression of the same chemokines was also increased in ex- and current smokers. The cellular sources of TSLP and chemokines were strikingly similar in severe asthma and COPD. The numbers of total bronchial mucosal T cells expressing the chemokine receptors CCR4, CCR8, and CXCR3 did not significantly differ in asthma, COPD, and controls. Both asthma and COPD are associated with elevated bronchial mucosal expression of TSLP and the same Th1- and Th2-attracting chemokines. Increased expression of these chemokines is not, however, associated with selective accumulation of T cells bearing their receptors.
Authors: Sorensen EW, Gerber SA, Frelinger JG, Lord EM
Abstract: IL-12 has been shown to be effective in enhancing antitumor responses. However, how IL-12 exerts its antiangiogenic effect is largely unknown. In this study, we elucidate this mechanism using B16 transfected to express IL-12 (B16/IL-12), a system that provides constant, local production of IL-12 within the tumor microenvironment. Intratumoral IL-12 resulted in a significant delay in tumor growth and phenotypic changes in the vasculature. Vessels found within B16 tumors are chaotic and poorly formed and express vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3), a growth factor receptor not expressed on normal adult vessels. However, the vessels within B16/IL-12 tumors have a more normal morphology and do not express VEGFR3. We have shown that IFN-gamma is required for IL-12 to suppress the aberrant expression of VEGFR3. Indeed, the presence of intratumoral IL-12 stimulates the immune system resulting in more IFN-gamma-producing tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes per tumor when compared with parental B16 tumors, which may have a marked effect on control of tumor growth. Interestingly, within B16/IL-12 tumors, T cells are necessary to suppress VEGFR3 expression on tumor vessels. Finally, using IFN-gamma receptor knockout mice in a bone marrow chimera system, we show that the IFN-gamma produced within the tumor suppresses VEGFR3 expression in two ways: 1) acting directly on tumor vessel endothelial cells, and 2) acting on the tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes to indirectly alter endothelial cells' VEGFR3 expression. Our data indicate a mechanism in which tumor-infiltrating immune cells regulate tumor vessel phenotype.
Authors: Hu X, Zhang D, Pang H, Caudle WM, Li Y, Gao H, Liu Y, Qian L, Wilson B, Di Monte DA, Ali SF, Zhang J, Block ML, Hong JS
Abstract: Neuronal death is known to trigger reactive microgliosis. However, little is known regarding the manner by which microglia are activated by injured neurons and how microgliosis participates in neurodegeneration. In this study we delineate the critical role of macrophage Ag complex-1 (MAC1), a member of the beta(2) integrin family, in mediating reactive microgliosis and promoting dopaminergic (DAergic) neurodegeneration in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of Parkinson's disease. MAC1 deficiency greatly attenuated the DAergic neurodegeneration induced by MPTP or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridium iodide (MPP(+)) exposure both in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Reconstituted experiments created by adding microglia from MAC1(-/-) or MAC1(+/+) mice back to MAC1(+/+) neuron-enriched cultures showed that microglia with functional MAC1 expression was mandatory for microglia-enhanced neurotoxicity. Both in vivo and in vitro morphological and Western blot studies demonstrated that MPTP/MPP(+) produced less microglia activation in MAC1(-/-) mice than MAC1(+/+) mice. Further mechanistic studies revealed that a MPP(+)-mediated increase in superoxide production was reduced in MAC1(-/-) neuron-glia cultures compared with MAC1(+/+) cultures. The stunted production of superoxide in MAC1(-/-) microglia is likely linked to the lack of translocation of the cytosolic NADPH oxidase (PHOX) subunit (p47(phox)) to the membrane. In addition, the production of PGE(2) markedly decreased in neuron plus MAC1(-/-) microglia cocultures vs neuron plus MAC1(+/+) microglia cocultures. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MAC1 plays a critical role in MPTP/MPP(+)-induced reactive microgliosis and further support the hypothesis that reactive microgliosis is an essential step in the self-perpetuating cycle leading to progressive DAergic neurodegeneration observed in Parkinson's disease.
Authors: Igari H, Watanabe A, Segawa S, Suzuki A, Watanabe M, Sakurai T, Watanabe M, Tatsumi K, Nakayama M, Suzuki K, Sato T
Abstract: The immunogenicity of pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus (A/H1pdm) vaccine might be modified by prior seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (sTIV) administration. We conducted a retrospective analysis of immunogenicity of 243 health care workers (number of sTIV-positive [sTIV(+)] subjects, 216; number of sTIV(-) subjects, 27) by hemagglutination inhibition. There was no significant difference in the ratios of antibody titers of ?40 (41.2% versus 48.1%; P = 0.49) and fold increases in geometric mean titer (3.8 versus 4.5; P = 0.37). sTIV injected 7 to 10 days prior to A/H1pdm vaccine administration did not interfere with the immunogenicity of the latter.
Authors: Basu Ball W, Kar S, Mukherjee M, Chande AG, Mukhopadhyaya R, Das PK
Abstract: To reside and multiply successfully within the host macrophages, Leishmania parasites impair the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are a major host defense mechanism against any invading pathogen. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins are associated with mitochondrial ROS generation, which is the major contributor of total cellular ROS generation. In the present study we have demonstrated that Leishmania donovani infection is associated with strong upregulation of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), a negative regulator of mitochondrial ROS generation located at the inner membrane of mitochondria. Functional knockdown of macrophage UCP2 by small interfering RNA-mediated silencing was associated with increased mitochondrial ROS generation, lower parasite survival, and induction of marked proinflammatory cytokine response. Induction of proinflammatory cytokine response in UCP2 knocked-down cells was a direct consequence of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK activation, which resulted from ROS-mediated inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Administration of ROS quencher, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, abrogated PTP inhibition in UCP2 knocked-down infected cells, implying a role of ROS in inactivating PTP. Short hairpin RNA-mediated in vivo silencing of UCP2 resulted in decreased Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 and PTP-1B activity and host-protective proinflammatory cytokine response resulting in effective parasite clearance. To our knowledge, this study, for the first time, reveals the induction of host UCP2 expression during Leishmania infection to downregulate mitochondrial ROS generation, thereby possibly preventing ROS-mediated PTP inactivation to suppress macrophage defense mechanisms.
Authors: Rothwell L, Young JR, Zoorob R, Whittaker CA, Hesketh P, Archer A, Smith AL, Kaiser P
Abstract: We isolated the full-length chicken IL-10 (chIL-10) cDNA from an expressed sequence tag library derived from RNA from cecal tonsils of Eimeria tenella-infected chickens. It encodes a 178-aa polypeptide, with a predicted 162-aa mature peptide. Chicken IL-10 has 45 and 42% aa identity with human and murine IL-10, respectively. The structures of the chIL-10 gene and its promoter were determined by direct sequencing of a bacterial artificial chromosome containing chIL-10. The chIL-10 gene structure is similar to (five exons, four introns), but more compact than, that of its mammalian orthologues. The promoter is more similar to that of Fugu IL-10 than human IL-10. Chicken IL-10 mRNA expression was identified mainly in the bursa of Fabricius and cecal tonsils, with low levels of expression also seen in thymus, liver, and lung. Expression was also detected in PHA-activated thymocytes and LPS-stimulated monocyte-derived macrophages, with high expression in an LPS-stimulated macrophage cell line. Recombinant chIL-10 was produced and bioactivity demonstrated through IL-10-induced inhibition of IFN-gamma synthesis by mitogen-activated lymphocytes. We measured the expression of mRNA for chIL-10 and other signature cytokines in gut and spleen of resistant (line C.B12) and susceptible (line 15I) chickens during the course of an E. maxima infection. Susceptible chickens showed higher levels of chIL-10 mRNA expression in the spleen, both constitutively and after infection, and in the small intestine after infection than did resistant chickens. These data indicate a potential role for chIL-10 in changing the Th bias during infection with an intracellular protozoan, thereby contributing to susceptibility of line 15I chickens.